FEMA & GSA identification patches worn by personnel at Mount Weather Facility

FEMA - Fascists Evoking Mass Atrocities

FEMA & The General Services Administration (GSA) Are Preparing For Martial Law!

The federal agency FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), which has been absorbed into the DHS ("Department of Homeland Security") is propagandized as being an "emergency relief agency", whose alleged primary responsibilities are to assist citizens during times of crises, such as war or natural disasters (hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, droughts, etc.). And while this scenario is partially true - it is by no means the primary responsibility of this powerful arm of America's secret government!

FEMA is the Secret Fascist Government of the United States. It is not an elected body. It does not involve itself in public disclosure. FEMA has a *secret* budget in the BILLIONS of dollars and the agency has more power than the President of the United States or Congress. FEMA has the power to suspend laws, move entire populations, and arrest and imprison Americans, without any warrant, and detain them without any trial.

FEMA spends less than 6% of its annual budget on national emergencies. The bulk of their *funding* (black budget) is used for the construction of secret underground facilities to assure Continuity Of Government (COG) in case of a major emergency, foreign or domestic, as well as prisons and holding facilities under the designation of "refugee stations", which to date, have never been used to house refugees of any kind.

FEMA has draconian power to convert the country into a police state (even more than it has already become) in time of either a real or manufactured (false flag) national crisis.

Speaking of mass atrocities - the Department of Homeland Security is in the process of purchasing 1.6 billion rounds of ammunition, theoretically enough to sustain a 20-year war against the American populace, which *will be fought right here on American soil*.

Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North virtually established the apparatus for dictatorship. Only the criticism of the Attorney General prevented the plans from being adopted. General Richard Secord and Colonel Oliver North, who orchestrated the Iran-Contra operation that smuggled in weapons and cocaine into the US, using the CIA and USAF to transport them, was in charge of FEMA for several years, during which time it grew into the behemoth it is today.

Club Of Rome Creation

The trial run for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, a Club of Rome creation, came in a test case against the nuclear power station at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania on March 28, 1979. Termed an “accident” by the media mongrels, Three Mile Island's insider sabotage was a deliberately designed crisis test for FEMA. An additional benefit was the fear and hysteria promoted by indentured globalist controlled presstitutes, which had people fleeing the area when in fact they were never in any real danger.

It was considered a success by FEMA and it scored a lot of points for the anti-nuclear forces. Three Mile Island became the rallying point for the so-called “environmentalists,” a highly financed and controlled group run out of The Aspen Institute on behalf of the Club of Rome. Coverage was provided free of charge by William Paley of CBS television, a former British intelligence agent.

FEMA is a natural successor to the Strategic Bombing Survey of WW II. Dr. Kurt Lewin, theoretician for what the Tavistock conspirators called crisis management, was deeply involved in the study. There is an unbroken chain between Lewin and Tavistock that stretches back for thirty-seven years. Lewin incorporated the Strategic Bombing Survey into FEMA, with only a few small adjustments proving necessary, one of the changes being the target, WHICH WAS NO LONGER GERMANY, BUT THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Forty-five years after the end of WW II, it is still Tavistock that has its hands on the trigger, and the weapon is pointed at the United States.

Cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead conducted an intensive study of the German and Japanese population, under the aegis of Tavistock, on how they reacted to stress caused by aerial bombardment. Irving Janus was an associate professor on the project which was supervised by Dr. John Rawlings Reese, promoted to Brigadier-General in the British Army.

The test results were given to FEMA. The Irving Janus report was of great value in formulating FEMA policies. Janus used it in a book which he later wrote entitled AIR WAR AND STRESS. The ideas in his book were FOLLOWED TO THE LETTER BY FEMA DURING THE THREE MILE ISLAND “CRISIS.” Janus had a really simple idea: Simulate a succession of crises, manipulate the population following Kurt Lewin's “terror tactics” and people will behave exactly as required.

In carrying out this exercise, Lewin discovered something new - that social control on a wide scale can be achieved by using the news media to bring home the horrors of a nuclear war via the television. It was discovered that women’s magazines were very effective in dramatizing the terrors of a nuclear war. A trial run conducted by Janus had Betty Bumpers, wife of Sen Dale Bumpers of Arkansas, “writing” for McCall's Magazine to create more hysteria.

While the administrative headquarters of FEMA is located in Atlanta, Georgia (the same location for those hideous Georgia Guidestones, The Weather Channel (see HAARP article), as well as the Center for Disease Control - CDC), with branch offices across America, the tactical headquarters are located in a gigantic underground facility near Bluemont Virginia. The site is called Mount Weather and has been referred to as the "Western Virginia Office of Controlled Conflict Operations", a name that will make more sense as you continue to read this article.

FEMA also heads up the Multi-Jurisdictional Task Force (or MJTF - a national as well as international military police force) and is the commanding agency over the Mount Weather operations. In the event of a national crisis, which could be anything that the president decides it could be, FEMA takes *full control* of the executive branch of government and rules the nation with all of the powers of martial law!

Each of the federal and private agencies located within the Mount Weather complex is under the control of a single individual. The person in control of each agency or department is not elected by the people, but are appointed by the president.

They have their own staff or cabinet members who are also appointed and answer directly to the powerful cabinet head. It is a duplicate of our federal government, but without the consent or even knowledge of the taxpayers who fund it. The other fundamental difference is that cabinet members and cabinet heads of each duplicate government department are not trained to be a democratic government in waiting. They are, however, a well trained dictatorship in waiting, not to serve the public, but rather to help administrate control over the public, while FEMA directs the execution of military/police operations against the citizens of America.

The federal government took control of the land in 1903 and used it for various projects until 1936. This is when the U.S. Bureau of Mines started a major digging and construction project that wound up being a literal underground city! It is complete with streets and sidewalks, private apartments, cafeterias, hospitals, supply stores and even it's own mass transit system! Furthermore, it has a water purification system, fed by lakes and underground springs and of course, it's own power plant and sewage disposal system. This is quite a contrast to the visible, above ground structures, which give the appearance of an innocent complex of a dozen or so well kept government communication-type office buildings with antennas and microwave relay systems. All this is located on a beautiful landscape and shows no resemblance of anything really strange.

Beneath the unsuspecting ground-level complex is what is often called the "Doomsday Hideaway". This huge mystery mountain of secrecy has gone virtually unnoticed by the public, and even most members of Congress are unaware or very unfamiliar with it. It is a self-contained, fully equipped, operational headquarters for the "hidden parallel government" of the United States and more!

Here is a list of some of the departments and agencies that are housed within the heavily protected mountain: the departments of Agriculture; Commerce; Health, Education and Welfare; Housing and Urban Development; Interior; Labor; State; Transportation; and Treasury. Some of the federal agencies located within are: the FCC, Selective Service, the Veterans Administration, the Federal Power Commission, the U.S. Postal Service, and the Federal Reserve (which by the way, is not controlled by the federal government). Another little know fact is that the headquarters for the World Bank is located in this safe haven!

FEMA can seize property, food supplies, transportation systems, and can suspend the Constitution. Originally conceived in the Richard Nixon Administration, it was refined by President Jimmy Carter and given teeth in both the Ronald Reagan and George Bush (senior) Administrations. It was originally created to "insure the survival and continuity of the U.S. government in the event of a nuclear attack." It was also given the authority of being a "federal coordinating body" during times of "domestic disasters", such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes.

It is the most powerful organization in the United States; quite possibly in the world. Yet most people do not even know that it exists. The few that have actually heard of this agency are completely unaware of FEMA's REAL purpose and REAL agenda.

It is very important to note that FEMA was not created under Constitutional law, nor by an act of Congress. It was created by EXECUTIVE ORDER.

An Act, called the "Emergency Management Act", was passed in 1935. This act said that "the President can issue Executive Orders in times of National Emergency." Since that time, we have always had a declared state of "National Emergency" in the United States, even though you did not know that. You can find these "declarations of National Emergency" in the Combined Federal Register and also in the Congressional Records. We are in one right now! Many Executive Orders have been issued since then. The order enacting FEMA is one of them. Since only Congress has the authority to appropriate funds, the Executive Order creating this agency is unconstitutional, or at best, it should have remained unfunded.

An Executive Order, whether Constitutional or not, becomes effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Congress is completely by-passed.

Some of the black helicopter traffic reported throughout the United States are flown by FEMA personnel. FEMA has been given responsibility for many new disasters, in addition to floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes - including but not limited to - urban forest fires, home heating emergencies, refugee situations, urban riots, along with emergency planning for nuclear and toxic incidences.

FEMA has been in charge of a military police force for several years. This multi-jurisdictional task force (mentioned above) has been actively conducting training operations across America (mostly in larger cities) under the guise of an anti-terrorist training operation.

The real purpose of these illegally performed training operations known as *MOUT* (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) are to prepare 'military police' teams to "take control" of major population centers, disarm American citizens, and crush any rebellious or anti-government groups who attempt to resist takeover.

These so-called "anti-terrorist training missions", MOUT, are scheduled to increase and these unsuspecting 'maneuvers' (which are actually full fledged *assaults*) are illegal, because they are being conducted without the required permission from most state governors and city officials.

Members of the public have been terrified in cities where these operations have taken place. Unmarked helicopters and black-hooded, armed troops descending on unsuspecting American mass population centers is one of the most gross and infringing violations of governmental and military authority ever perpetrated on the U.S. citizenry! But this is mild compared to what it will be like when the training stops and the real implementation of their "training" begins!

FEMA has the most advanced communication and data compiling technology available. Their massive data bank includes information on practically every citizen in the U.S. It also has lists of nearly all organizations or groups. Especially those whom they consider to be "subversive" or "militant".

This basically includes every group, organization, or individual who actively opposes their goals, aims, and objectives of our imperial American government. Your name may very well be on this list.

However, there is another list of names kept by FEMA. This is a list of approximately 10,000 people, in addition to the president and his selected staff, who are considered "essential" people to insure the rebirth and continued survival of the country after a nuclear war wipes out the rest of us. Mount Weather will be their luxurious safe haven in such a catastrophe.

Since Mount Weather's secret hiding place is not as secret as it once was, FEMA also has alternative safety measures for its "essential" citizens. As previously mentioned, this vast underground city has, among other amenities, a mass transit system.

Mount Weather is the main hub of a network of about 100 other underground facilities! Connector routes to and from allow for quick relocation of personnel and "residents" of underworld America. When imminent danger exists in one location, the mass transit system can transfer people out of harm's way and keep any potential enemy thoroughly baffled.

On December 1, 1974, a TWA Boeing 727 jet crashed into a fog- shrouded mountain in northern Virginia and burned, killing all 92 persons aboard. Near the wreckage was a fenced government installation identified as Mount Weather.

Mount Weather Facility with the Northern Shenandoah Valley in the background

Mount Weather is a real place. Eighty-five acres located forty-five miles west of Washington and 1,725 feet above sea level, near the town of Bluemont, Virginia. In the event of all-out war, an elite of civilian and military leaders are to be taken to Mount Weather's cavernous underground shelter to become the nucleus of a postwar American society. The government has a secret list of those persons it plans to save.

There is a fallout shelter under the East Wing of the White House. No one believes it offers any real protection from a nuclear attack on Washington, however. FEMA has elaborate plans for getting the president and other key officials out of Washington, should there be a nuclear attack.

In that event, the president is supposed to board a Boeing 747 National Emergency Airborne Command Post ("Kneecap"). That is presumed to be safer than any point on the ground. The president's plane can be refueled in the air from other planes and may be able to stay airborne for as long as three days. Then its engine will conk out for lack of oil. That is where Mount Weather comes in. Government geologists selected the site because it has some of the most impregnable rock in the United States. The shelter was started in the Truman administration, and it took years to tunnel into the mountain.

There is a whole chain of shelters for leaders and critical personnel. The Federal Relocation Arc, a system of ninety-six shelters for specific U.S. Government agencies, sweeps through North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. A duplicate of the Pentagon is located at a site called Raven Rock in Maryland. The administrative center of the whole system, and the place where the top civilians would go, is Mount Weather.

FEMA's enormous powers can be triggered easily. In any form of domestic or foreign problem, perceived and not always actual, emergency powers can be enacted. The President of the United States now has broader powers to declare martial law, which activates FEMA's extraordinary powers. Martial law can be declared during time of increased tension overseas, economic problems within the United States, such as a depression, civil unrest, such as demonstrations or scenes like the Los Angeles riots, and in a drug crisis. These Presidential powers have increased with successive Crime Bills, particularly the 1991 and 1993 Crime Bills, which increase the power to suspend the rights guaranteed under the Constitution and to seize property of those suspected of being drug dealers, to individuals who participate in a public protest or demonstration. Under emergency plans already in existence, the power exists to suspend the Constitution and turn over the reigns of government to FEMA and appointing military commanders to run state and local governments. FEMA then would have the right to order the detention of anyone whom there is reasonable ground to believe...will engage in, or probably conspire with others to engage in acts of espionage or sabotage. The plan also authorized the establishment of concentration camps for detaining the accused, but no trial.

Mount Weather is much more than a fallout shelter; it is a troglodytic Levittown. In the mid-1970s Richard Pollack, a writer for PROGRESSIVE magazine, interviewed a number of persons who had been associated with Mount Weather. According to them, Mount Weather is an underground city with roads, sidewalks, and a battery-powered subway. A spring-fed artificial lake gleams in the fluorescent light. There are office buildings, cafeterias, and hospitals. Large dormitories are furnished with bunks or "hot cots" - hammocks intended to be occupied in three eight-hour shifts. There are private apartments as well. Mount Weather has its own waterworks, food storage, and power plant. A "bubble-shaped pod" in the East Tunnel houses one of the most powerful computers in the world.

The Situation Room, a circular chamber, would be a nerve center in the time of war. The Mount Weather folks set great store by visual aids and retain artists and cartographers at all times. A futuristic color videophone system is the basic means of communication within Mount Weather's subterranean world. "All important staff meetings were conducted via color television as far back as 1958, long before it was generally available to the public," one former staffer bragged.

The most surprising of Pollack's revelations is that Mount Weather has a working back-up of U.S. Government EVEN NOW. Undisclosed persons there duplicate the responsibilities of our elected leaders, making Mount Weather an eerie doppelganger of the United States.

An Office of the Presidency is ensconced in an underground wing known as the White House. The elected president or survivor closest in the chain of command would make his way there and take over the reins. Until then, a staffer appointed by FEMA would be carrying out duties said to simulate those of the real president. Installed at Mount Weather are nine federal departments, their very names ironic in the context: Agriculture, Commerce, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, and the Treasury. Miniature versions of the Selective Service, the Veteran's Administration, the Federal Communications Commission, the Post Office, the Civil Service Commission, Federal Power Commission and Federal Reserve are there as well.

"High-level government sources, speaking under the promise of strict anonymity, told me that each of the federal departments represented at Mount Weather is headed by a single person on who is conferred Cabinet-level official," Pollack reported. "Protocol even demands that subordinates address them as 'Mr. Secretary.' Each of the Mount Weather 'Cabinet members' is apparently appointed by the White House and serves an indefinite term. Many of the 'secretaries' have held their positions through several administrations."

What do all these people DO? Twice a month, Mount Weather stages a war game to train its personnel and explore various dire scenarios. Once a year they pull out all the stops and have a super drill in which REAL Cabinet members and White House staffers fly in from Washington.

General Leslie Bray, director of the Federal Preparedness Agency, FEMA's predecessor, told the Senate that Mount Weather has extensive files on "military installations, government facilities, communications, transportation, energy and power, agriculture, manufacturing, wholesale and retail services, manpower, financial, medical and educational institutions, sanitary facilities, population, housing shelter, and stockpiles." Additional information is kept in safekeeping at other shelters in the Federal Relocation Arc.

There is a body of opinion that considers Mount Weather obsolete. Mount Weather is a non-movable target, and a very strategic one if the relocation works. The "toughest granite in the East" may have offered some protection in Eisenhower's time, but multiple strikes could blast the mountain away. It was reported that the TWA jet crash knocked out power at Mount Weather for two-and-a-half hours. What would a bomb do?

The Soviet Union knows exactly where Mount Weather is -- and almost certainly knew long before the Western press did. The Soviets tried to buy an estate near Mount Weather as a "vacation retreat" for embassy employees. The State Department stopped the sale.

The Survivor List

In 1975 General Bray told the Senate that the Mount Weather survivor list had sixty-five hundred names on it. Who might be included?

The president, of course, provide he survives his Kneecap command. The vice-president and Cabinet members are on the list because they take part in the annual dry runs. Beyond that, little is known and the few existing accounts conflict.

For instance, what about Congress? General Bray said that his responsibilities included the executive branch only, not Congress or the Supreme Court. But in an interview in 1976, Senator Hubert Humphrey insisted that he had visited the shelter as vice- president and seen "a nice little chamber, rostrum and all," for post nuclear sessions of Congress.

Furthermore, Earl Warren is said to have been invited when he was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Warren refused because he was not allowed to take his wife. The protocol for ordering persons to Mount Weather specifies that messages not be left with family members answering the phone.

The vast majority of the persons on the list are believed to be ranking bureaucrats from the nine federal agencies with branches at Mount Weather. Pollack said he heard stories that some construction workers were on the list "because, the Mount Weather analysts reasoned, excavation work for mass graves would be needed immediately in the aftermath of a thermonuclear war." General Bray admitted that some others such as telephone company technicians are included.

Each person on the survival list has an ID card with a photo. The identification card reads ...

"The Person Described On This Card Has Essential Emergency Duties With The Federal Government. Request Full Assistance And Unrestricted Movement Be Afforded To The Person To Whom This Card Is Issued."

FEMA's Activation Sets The Stage For 'Rule By Decree'

"In the developed countries there will be a bitter struggle for the control of their diminished resources. This struggle will merely worsen a bad situation; it will somehow have to be stopped. If left unchecked, it would lead to anarchy and to a drastic reduction of the size of the population by civil war, famine, and pestilence, the historic reducers of populations that have outgrown their means of subsistence. Consequently in all developed countries, a new way of life -- a severely regimented way -- will have to be imposed by a ruthless authoritarian government."

Of all the signs during early November that the Bush administration was lunging toward a cataclysmic conflict in the Persian Gulf, one of the most ominous was the five day, closed-door meeting with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) convened in Atlanta during the week of November 5th.

Despite its innocuous-sounding name, *FEMA* serves as the basic framework for the anti-constitutional, authoritarian regime envisioned by British strategic games master Arnold Toynbee in the article above. FEMA is now mobilizing for precisely that purpose.

Since Bush launched his "Operation Desert Shield" in August, preparations for a FEMA dictatorship, under the guise of a national security crisis induced by either an oil shortage or a war, have dominated behind-the-scenes planning at the National Security Council, which controls FEMA and it's activation. The process is shrouded in secrecy.

FEMA spokesmen adamantly refused to provide any information about the agency's Atlanta meeting, other than to confirm that it was taking place. However, enough information has leaked out to fuel speculation that Bush will soon utilize the vast array of stand-by emergency powers available to him.

REX 84, NSDP51, HSDP20

REX 84, short for Readiness Exercise 1984, was a contingency plan developed by the United States government to suspend the United States Constitution, declare martial law, place military commanders in charge of state and local governments, and detain large numbers of American citizens who were deemed to be "national security threats", in the event that the President declared a "State of Domestic National Emergency." The plan stated that events that might cause such a declaration would be widespread opposition to a U.S. military invasion abroad, such as if the United States were to directly invade. To combat what the government perceived as "subversive activities", the plan also authorized the military to direct ordered movements of civilian populations at state and regional levels.

The REX 84 Program was originally established on the reasoning that if a "mass exodus" of illegal aliens crossed the Mexican/US border, they would be quickly rounded up and detained in detention centers by FEMA.

Existence of the REX 84 plan was first revealed during the Iran-Contra Hearings in 1987, and subsequently reported by the Miami Herald on July 5, 1987...

"These camps are to be operated by FEMA, should martial law need to be implemented in the United States and all it would take is a presidential signature on a proclamation and the attorney general’s signature on a warrant to which a list of names is attached."

And there you have it ~ the real purpose of FEMA is to not only protect the government, but also to be its principal vehicle for martial law.

This is why FEMA could not respond immediately to the Hurricane Katrina disaster. "Humanitarian efforts" were no longer a primary part of its job description under the Department of Homeland Security.

It appears Hurricane Katrina also provided FEMA with an excuse to "dry run" its unconstitutional powers in New Orleans, rounding up "refugees" ("evacuees") and "relocating" them to various camps. Some evacuees are being treated as internees by FEMA, writes former NSA employee Wayne Madsen.

In May 2007, Bush signed new executive orders (EOs) NSDP51 and HSDP20 as a replacement for REX 84. These two orders established that the White House administration would take over ALL local governments under a state of national emergency, instead of Homeland Security. Everything done in government is done for a reason, and these two new orders are no exception.

These new directives surprised and alarmed many real conservatives and true patriots at the time.

In military history, it has been proven that if you control the food supply, you control the people. Few people know that a secure area inside Wal-Mart headquarters in Bentonville, AR has a sign declaring that secured area belongs to Homeland Security. Wal-Mart will become the food distributor for America under a rationing program. There is no other larger food store chain that can provide the required logistics that Wal-Mart can. In the 1990s, the military quietly did walk-throughs of all the major food store chains around the country, taking notes. Somewhere there is a DHS document detailing their plans, which entails securing *ALL* of the grocery stores in the country.

Emergency Fascism

We are not arguing in this report that emergency preparedness or emergency measures are unnecessary and inappropriate under any and all circumstances. What we are saying is that the Bush administration is dead set on using the pretext of a national security crisis to carry out a set of policies which violate the U.S. constitution, and are inimical to the interests of the vast majority of the U.S. population. Bush is being impelled toward exercising emergency powers by the same circumstances that are behind his drive for war: the economic collapse of the Anglo-American financial superstructure. The principle reason that Bush wants a war with Iraq, is to set a precedent for reviving the savage colonialist policy of looting Third-World countries.

This is deemed necessary by the Anglo-American elite, because their failed policies of "post-industrialism" and speculation have made it impossible to pay Third World countries a just and fair price for their oil, minerals, and other commodities. Rather than change their own economic policies, Bush, Thatcher, and their elite controllers have opted for misery on a global scale.

By the same token, Bush needs an excuse to wield emergency powers because of the economic depression in the United States. As exemplified by the budget wranglings of the past six months, the administration has decided to deal with the nation's economic woes not by stimulating investment in agriculture, manufacturing, and hi-tech industries, but by looting the living standard of the middle, and working class.

But the depths of the depression the United States has entered will require austerity on a scale that cannot be accomplished within the framework of constitutional government -- at least not without risking a popular upsurge that could overturn the administration and its policies.

Thus, the Iraq conflict -- which, as EIR has documented, was deliberately setup by the United States and Great Britain -- has provided Bush with the long-sought-for chance to ram austerity down the throats of Americans, while establishing a genocidal U.S. policy towards the nations of the Third World.

FEMA's Police State

Should the American people resist, FEMA is prepared to step in with police-state measures. In its July 5, 1987 issue, the Miami Herald published a revealing expose on FEMA's plans to rip up the Constitution in the event of a national crisis.

Written by Alfonso Chardy, the article reported that between 1982-1984, FEMA revised its contingency plans for dealing with "nuclear war, insurrection, or a massive mobilization." [See HERALD.TXT.]

Chardy reported that National Security Council staffer LT. COL. Oliver North assisted FEMA in drawing up "a controversial plan to suspend the constitution in the event of a national crisis, such as nuclear war, violent and wide spread internal dissent or _national opposition to a U.S. military invasion abroad_" (Emphasis added). The last eventuality is of special significance under the present circumstances of growing domestic opposition to Bush's war plans in the Gulf.

The Plan "also advocated the roundup and transfer to 'assembly centers or relocation camps' of at least 21 million" black Americans. In 1984, FEMA ran its "Rex 84" exercise (one of many such exercises, almost all of them classified, which FEMA regularly carries out in conjunction with the Defense Department), to test its upgraded capabilities and powers. The "Rex 84" scenario was based on a super power confrontation over Central America, which would lead to a nuclear war. Included in the scenario was a roundup of Central American refugees who had poured over the boarders into the United States, and who were placed in detention camps located on U.S. military bases. The scenario also called for the imposition of martial law in the United States, to quell an anti-war movement.

Substitute Middle East for Central America, and war with Iraq for a superpower confrontation, and you've got the Bush Administration -- FEMA script for suppressing any opposition to U.S. participation in the Gulf conflict. A still-secret National Security Directive decision (No. 52), issued by President Reagan in August 1982, pertains to the "Use of National Guard Troops to Quell Disturbances."

FEMA has divided the country into ten regional districts

Bush: The American Mussolini

Bush is the perfect candidate to be the American Mussolini. His patrician background and intimate ties to the U.S. Intelligence community (he served as the director of the CIA in the mid-1970s), have inculcated in him a contempt for constitutional and representational government. That has been nowhere more evident than in his recent response from pleadings from Capital Hill that he consult with Congress on the Gulf conflict. In defiance of the constitutions provision that only Congress has the right to declare war, Bush has refused.

During the Reagan years, Bush insinuated himself into the heart of the administration's vast crisis-planning apparatus, getting himself appointed the head of Special Situations Group, which effectively placed him in charge of all crisis management.

Bush signaled his intention to use crisis management as the means of imposing emergency police-state rule just a week after the election. One of his first acts after winning the presidency was to persuade Ronald Reagan to issue Executive Order 12656, which we excerpted at length in the Documentation section - a chilling blueprint for an emergency dictatorship with FEMA at the helm.

Blank Check For 'Crisis Management'

If Bush does decide to use the Gulf crisis as an excuse to declare a national emergency, he has a virtual blank check to do what he pleases period. "The President has a broad range of emergency powers available to him in a crisis," a White House spokesman confirmed. According to Harold Relyea, a specialist at the Congressional Research Service, the powers available to the President under conditions of a national security crisis are "wide open. . . there is probably not a whole lot circumscribing the President's authority to use certain statutes, some of which require a declaration of national emergency, some of which don't."

These powers are based on a huge body of executive orders, national security directives, and legislation that has evolved since WWII. In addition to the various executive orders and national security directives described elsewhere in the report, some of the most important of these include:

* The National Security Act of 1947, under which FEMA draws its authority, among other things, to effect the strategic relocation of industries, services, government, and other essential activities, and to rationalize the requirements for manpower, resources, and productive facilities.

* The 1950 Defense Production Act, which gives the president sweeping powers over all aspects of the economy.

* The Act of August 29, 1916, which authorizes the Secretary of the Army, in time of war, to take possession of any transportation system for transportation of troops, materiel, or any other purpose related to the emergency.

* The International Emergency Economic Powers Act, which enables the President to seize the property of a Foreign capital or national.

In addition, numerous measures exist that are specifically designed to be invoked in event of a cutoff of U.S. energy supplies, which would likely occur should fighting break out in the Gulf.

These include: the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which establishes the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and establishes separate energy priorities and allocation authority to be coordinated with the national defense authorities and allocations system set up by the Defense Production Act; the Energy Security Act of 1980; the Naval Petroleum Reserve Act, which establishes the naval petroleum and oil shale reserve and authorizes the Navy to seize or acquire transportation pipelines to transport the petroleum; the Export Administration Act and the Trade Expansion Act, which authorize the President to control exports and imports; and the Energy Emergency Preparedness Act of 1982.

Questions have existed about FEMA's role from the beginning. Veteran Washington watchers have long been puzzled by its secretive role.

The Reagan administration, for example, had plans for arresting tens of thousands of "potentially subversive" suspect aliens, critics and dissenters in the wake of an undefined national emergency.

Does FEMA pose a danger to lawful government? Is there the possibility of a dictatorial overthrow of the Constitution with the president seizing all power?

Your Constitutional Rights Have Disappeared Overnight

Washington, DC -- It is a frightening thought, but there are Executive Orders (EOs) on the books that make it possible for a president to ignore the Constitution and its cherished Bill of Rights, Congress, the judiciary and the very will of the American people.

It is a fact that a complete dictatorship can be imposed upon the people at any time, simply by the president declaring a national emergency.

During the 1950s and 1960s, it was believed that the best way to bring about one-world government was by disarming the United States. Those who feared for America's Constitutionally guaranteed liberties, and rightfully so, warned that America would be disarmed and would become easy prey for the ever-expanding military power of the Soviet Union and Red China.

They particularly opposed the powers of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, established to disarm America.

Now, however, with Eastern Europe shaking itself free from the shackles of communism and those peoples exercising their nationalistic yearnings, disarmament by both sides has become a necessity to cure social ills plaguing the U.S. and former Soviet bloc countries. With the apparent failure of the Red military machine, the general movement has been toward an easing of the arms race.

New Friendship

From this newfound "friendship" with Eastern Europe and in particular from the so-called multinational effort against Iraq in the Persian Gulf, President George Bush rarely gives a speech or holds a press conference in which he fails to mention his thoughts about a "New World Order."

Now, however, a new method is needed to nullify America's treasured Constitution and the insidious EOs have gained a new and even more dangerous part to play in the plotting of the one worlders of the Trilateralist-Bilderberger ilk.

The biggest danger of such schemes as those proposed by Newt Gingrich (R-Ga.) and Sen. Phil Gramm (R-Texas) is that any declared "national emergencies" would allow the president to activate repressive EOs signed by presidents going back to World War II.

Incredibly, FEMA even has the power to assume the duties of the president himself.

FEMA, under its more innocent-appearing posture, is the organization of the federal government that rushes in to administer federal aid and assistance when a disaster strikes a community or state.

Those who want to know the complete truth about its not-so-innocent nature only need to peruse Carter's EO 12148, as it appeared on July 24, 1979, in the _Federal Register_, and as it was reprinted in the May 26, 1980 issue of The SPOTLIGHT.

Finally, President Ronald Reagan updated this EO in his last full year in office on November 18. 1988, leaving his successor, Bush, the tools to create a dictatorship, his "New World Order."

ALL Americans Computerized By FEMA

Washington, DC -- Fort Meade, Maryland is the government's most tightly guarded installation (it houses, among others, the secret National Security Agency). In an unmarked, windowless office building on the grounds of Fort Meade, hundreds of thousands of American citizens are being "computerized" by technicians on the payroll of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

"Administratively, this place is the equivalent of an unlisted telephone," explained a former senior official of FEMA, who agreed to an interview on condition that his identity be protected. "It has no official existence. There is no listing for it, no traceable designation. But it's there, idling quietly, like a doomsday bomb waiting for its moment in history."

The task of FEMA's secret data control annex at Fort Meade is to develop so-called CAPs -- the term stands for "crisis action programs" -- to be implemented in national emergencies. The term was originally used to denote disaster relief plans at the Federal Preparedness Agency, once a department of the General Services Administration, now merged into FEMA.

But the computerized action plans instrumented at Fort Meade have nothing to do with aiding victims of hurricanes or other natural disasters. They are blueprints for taking over the U.S. government and converting it into a command system under the "emergency management" of federal bureaucrats.

Privately, congressional investigators, intelligence analysts and veteran Washington newsmen familiar with the inner machinery of the vast federal bureaucracy have long expressed concern and anxiety about FEMA. An "umbrella administration" born in 1978 when President Jimmy Carter combined the disaster and emergency response functions of nearly a dozen scattered federal outposts into a single agency, FEMA has always been known as an "activist" and secretive fraternity.

Under Louis Giuffrida, appointed FEMA director by President Ronald Reagan in 1981, the agency developed a top-secret project for arresting tens of thousands of "suspect aliens" along with troublesome critics and dissenters whom the White House found annoying enough to be labeled "potentially subversive."

Tagged Operation Rex 84, these un-Constitutional plans were first discovered and revealed by this populist newspaper in a series of exclusive investigative reports in the April 23 and May 14, 1984 issues.

But although The SPOTLIGHT's expose wrecked FEMA's plans for setting up mass "emergency detention centers" -- and cost Giuffrida his post as director -- secret preparations for "[ensuring] the continuity of the federal government" in ill-defined "emergencies" remained the major concern of FEMA's senior officials.

"Those words, enunciated by President Gerald Ford in Executive Order 11921, were understood by FEMA to mean that one day they would be in charge of the country," explained Dr. Henry Kliemann, a political scientist at Boston University. "As these bureaucrats saw it, FEMA's real mission was to wait, prepare and then take over when some `situation' seemed serious enough to turn the United States into a police state."

To illustrate FEMA's conspiratorial core, knowledgeable Washington intelligence sources cited the instance of the 1989 visit by President George Bush to Cartagena, Colombia, to attend a so-called regional drug summit with three Latin American presidents.

"There were rumors of a terrorist threat against Bush by Colombian drug hit squads," recounted Monroe H. Brown, a former federal security officer with long years of service in Miami. "Teams of Secret Service, FBI and CIA agents were mobilized to find out how serious the threat was, while back in Washington, FEMA went to work on an emergency program in case the presidential plane was hit by a Stinger missile somewhere over Colombia."

FEMA's emergency measures included preparations to round up more than 10,000 Americans "redlined" in the agency's computers as "activists, supporters or sympathizers of terrorism in the United States," explained Brown.

In August 1990, after Iraq invaded Kuwait, FEMA got ready to deal with "terrorist emergencies" in the United States by churning up the same old discredited computer compilation of "terrorist supporters and sympathizers," adding thousands of names to it and alerting the U.S. Army to set up detention camps to hold these innocent victims of its bureaucratic brutality.

Chief Executive Could Seize Dictatorial Power Any Time

A little-known executive order hands the President authority to seize control of the political, economic and military structure on a whim.

Under the Constitution, the president is vested with the executive power of the government (Article II, Section I, clause 1), the power to "preserve, protect and defend the Constitution" (Art. II, Sect. 1, clause 7), and the power to see that the laws are faithfully executed (Art. II, Sect. 3). From these powers is implied the authority to issue "executive orders."

The president must have the authority to issue directives to keep control of the executive branch and to provide detail to legislation. Neither Congress nor the courts have the right to prohibit the executive branch from adding or subtracting authority from one government agency to another, for example.

However, this presidential power has been abused in the form of executive orders that impinge across legislative concerns which are properly the province of Congress.

The validity of executive orders (EOs) has been questioned many times dating at least to the Civil War. However, a ruling as to the extent or limit to which they may be used has never been determined by the courts or Congress.

The _Federal Register_ contains the text of EOs issued by the presidents. There is no congressional authorization required, nor is there any review by the judiciary. All EOs are "laws" made by a single man -- the president of the United States.

President Jimmy Carter's True Legacy Is Shocking

Washington, DC -- While many frown when they think of the high interest rates, U.S. hostages held abroad and foreign policy giveaways associated with the Carter administration, former President Jimmy Carter's true legacy may be even more shocking than imagined.

Carter seemingly ran an end run around a law passed in the wake of Watergate and signed before Carter took office, which limited White House powers, when he formed the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

FEMA is based on Richard Nixon's Executive Order 11490

The legislation contained nearly 200,000 words on 32 pages. It pertained to every executive order ever issued unless specifically revoked.

When Carter took office, EO 11490 was incorporated into a new order allowing a president to assume dictatorial powers during any self- proclaimed "emergency" situation; these powers will remain with a president until specifically revoked by Congress.

Some senators thought they had successfully squashed the chief executive's "national emergency" powers more than 10 years ago, after a bipartisan congressional committee pushed the National Emergencies Act into law.

Until September 14, 1976, the nation's chief executive officer was empowered by more than 470 special statues to "seize property, organize and control the means of production, seize commodities, institute martial law, seize and control all transportation and communication, regulate the operation of private enterprise, restrict travel and, in a host of other ways, control the lives of Americans," then-Sen. Frank Church (D-Idaho) said in the _Congressional Record_.

The National Emergencies Act, which took effect in 1978, was supposed to prevent the nation from turning into a potential dictatorship. Presidents had used their "emergency" powers at least four times in the previous 45 years.

The president held this little-known sway over citizens through executive orders, which he could write into law in a moment's notice. No group, neither elected officials, business leaders, nor private citizens, had the power to void these laws.

Franklin Roosevelt invoked a national emergency in 1933 to deal with the banking crisis, and Harry Truman responded to the Korean War with an emergency act in 1950.

Richard Nixon declared a pair of crises. In March 1970 he declared a national emergency to deal with the post office strike. The Nixon White House was at it again 16 months later when it implemented currency restriction in August of 1971 in order to control foreign trade.

Then, in 1976, after two years of public hearings and committee meetings, a bipartisan special congressional Committee on Emergency Powers pushed legislation to wrestle power from the White House.

The National Emergencies Act became law on September 14, 1978,. Senators used the second anniversary of their law to pat each other on the back -- through the _Congressional Record_ -- and to attempt to establish Congress's role in national security.

"The Congress must never again trade away its responsibilities in the name of national emergency," Church said. "Let that be one of the lessons learned from the investigation completed, the passage of the National Emergencies Act and the termination today of emergency powers."

Church's warning fell on deaf ears. Less than one year later, President Jimmy Carter ordered into being an entire apparatus -- unprecedented in American history -- designed to seize and exercise all political, economic and military power in the United States.

Carter, Reagan, George Bush, or any future president could establish himself as total dictator.

Carter did this with Executive Order (EO) 12148.

An executive order has never been defined by Congress. The validity of such directives has been questioned many times, but there has never been a decision made by the courts or Congress on how far-reaching executive orders may be.

Through existing executive orders it is possible for one person to ignore the Constitution, Congress and the will of the American people. A complete dictatorship can be imposed under the veil of law.

A declaration by the president of the existence of a "national emergency" has always stopped short of martial law, although the president has that prerogative. Undoubtedly it would be exercised in the event of an attack on the United States.

An attempt was made to incorporate all the "national emergency" powers into one law under Nixon. However, in the wake of the Watergate scandal, he was unable to pull off the presidential coup.

Carter, a Trilateralist, did.

Blueprint For US Dictatorship Places Individual Rights At Risk

Washington, DC -- During the Persian Gulf war and the military buildup leading to it, President George Bush began using the term "New World Order," often suggesting that the commitment of so-called multinational forces involved in the military effort was the beginning of this alleged worldwide utopia.

Supposedly using the vehicle of the United Nations, Bush's New World Order would be the arbitrator of all world problems and the apparatus to enforce globalist dictates through the use of armed forces combined from the armies of member nations. The UN law would be, regardless of the nationalist interests of individual countries, the final word.

Actually, even the mention of a New World Order would normally be anathema to thinking Americans and, in particular, conservative political leaders and civil libertarians.

Sinister Technology

It is also surprising to many critics of the move toward one-world government that Bush would even dare choose the term "New World Order" to define his globalist schemes. However, most Americans alive today were born after World War II, when propaganda of the so-called Allied powers used the terms of "New Order" or "New World Order" to describe in a sinister way the military efforts of Japan and, in particular, Germany under Adolf Hitler.

Few, it seems, have taken the time to analyze just what Bush has in mind for his New World Order, of which America is to become an integral part, starting with supplying about 90 percent of the muscle, and young lives, that tackled and defeated Iraqi strongman Saddam Hussein's Arab legions.

However, patriotic Constitutional scholars know that Bush's New World Order is the worst attack ever on America as a sovereign, independent and free nation.

Began With President Woodrow Wilson

Efforts to form a global government are certainly nothing new. American political leaders, who were concerned with America first, were able to overcome the internationalist, one-world government machinations of President Woodrow Wilson following World War I. Wilson was prevented from realizing his visions of a New World Order, through the League of Nations, by a powerful Senate opposition, which refused to rubber-stamp for Wilson U.S. membership in the world body.

A few decades later, however, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, near the end of World War II, was able to get his one-world plans under way by laying the groundwork for today's United Nations, which was completed under his successor, Harry S. Truman.

A few years later, that membership in an UN-mandated war in Korea cost America 35,000 lives.

The problem that one-worlders have always encountered, of course, is the U.S. Constitution, which has stood as a bulwark against any globalist schemes.

Nevertheless, American presidents since Roosevelt have insidiously chipped away at the great powers of the people, written into the Constitution by America's immortal Founding Fathers, with the use of so- called executive orders.

Cause For Alarm

Americans should be deeply alarmed that those presidents have signed a series of executive orders (EOs) which, under the guise of any national emergency declared by the president serving at the time, can virtually suspend the Constitution and convert the nation into a virtual dictatorship. Dissent, peaceful or otherwise, is eliminated.

Those backing efforts to circumvent the Constitution may have gotten the idea from President Abraham Lincoln, whose use of various extraordinary powers of his office, which many Constitutional scholars still insist was illegal, suspended various civil rights to curb such problems as draft riots during the Civil War.

In 1862, Congress enacted the Enrollment Act to allow the drafting of young men for the Union Army. The act was rife with inequities, such as the provision which allowed a man to pay $300 or hire a substitute to take his place. This hated "Rich Man's Exemption," as it was called, angered the average American of military age and in particular young Irish immigrants in New York City.

A riot erupted in New York in 1863, and it resulted in Lincoln using some extraordinary powers of his office to keep the Union from falling apart from within.

But over the years, presidents have used these powers for purposes never intended by the Founding Fathers.

What Is FEMA Really Up To?

FEMA's real focus is not on disaster relief. An investigation of this little-known agency, conducted by the General Accounting Office (GAO), the congressional watchdog unit, has found that less than 10 percent of FEMA's staff -- 230 bureaucrats out of an estimated 2,600 -- are assigned full-time to preparing for and dealing with major natural disasters, such as hurricanes or earthquakes.

Help Bungled And Disorganized

Washington, DC -- One after another, two violent, cataclysmic disasters struck the United States in the fall of 1989. Hurricane Hugo roared through the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and the Carolinas in September. Within weeks, northern California was shaken by the Loma Prieta earthquake that left hundreds of thousands of victims and billions of dollars in damage in its wake.

Having spent "over $25 billion on setting up FEMA," American taxpayers were entitled to expect "quick and efficient help" from it in the face of such shattering calamities. But the response by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to these upheavals was "bungled" and "disorganized," says Ray Groover, who reported on the hurricane for a San Juan, Puerto Rico, newspaper and is now studying for a graduate degree in journalism at Columbia University in New York.

Since the Disaster Relief Act of 1988, FEMA has been responsible for coordinating the "[disaster] preparedness, response and recovery actions of state and local governments." Unable to live up to these responsibilities during the 1989 crisis, the agency drew sharp criticism from the press and from Congress, whose leaders assigned the General Accounting Office (GAO) to conduct the first-ever detailed investigation of FEMA.

For a year, GAO field examiners interviewed hundreds of disaster victims, state and local relief workers, journalists and other witnesses. The agency has assembled a 71-page report on U.S. relief operations.

Watchdog Agency Rates FEMA

Having obtained an advance copy of that survey, a team of SPOTLIGHT reporters found that the congressional watchdog agency rated FEMA's ability to deal with natural disasters as being "inefficient," "weak" and "dilatory."

Noting that "emergency management includes three phases: preparedness, response and recovery," GAO probers warned that FEMA failed to operate "as efficiently as possible" in all these areas.

There was evidence of "inadequate planning ... inadequate or no standard operating procedures ... [and a] lack of coordination" wherever FEMA's bureaucrats intervened, the GAO report concluded. Among the results of these botched relief attempts were "delays in providing disaster assistance and duplicate payments for some [of FEMA's] activities," the congressional overseers discovered.

One example of FEMA's failure cited by the GAO survey team involved 4,000 low-income units wholly destroyed in California's devastating October 1989 earthquake. "Thirteen months later, only 114 units had been processed and approved for [rehabilitation] funding," the report reveals. Similarly, 10 months after Hurricane Hugo, most of the families left homeless "had not yet been provided with housing assistance from FEMA."

FEMA has developed 300 sophisticated 'mobile units' that are capable of sustaining
themselves for 30 days. The vehicles are located in five areas of the United States.
They have tremendous communication systems and each contains a generator for
providing power to 120 homes each .. but have never been used for disaster relief.

Director's Shell Game

Warned that the GAO report will expose FEMA as incompetent and wasteful, President George Bush fired agency Director Julius Becton, an elderly three-star general, whose principal qualifications for flag rank was Henry Kissinger's wish to promote "minority" officers, Defense Department sources say.

Becton was replace by Wallace Stickney, a former New Hampshire state official whose colorless and low-profile reputation is expected to dampen the fireworks the GAO report might otherwise touch off about the inadequacy of federal relief operations.

But simply shifting directors "does not answer the real question: If [FEMA officials] seem disinterested and negligent when it comes to disaster response, exactly what are FEMA's thousands of bureaucrats working on?" asked Groover.

The answer is that FEMA's leadership is developing programs that will not merely "ensure the continuity of the federal government in any national emergency-type situation," as decreed by President Gerald Ford in Executive Order 11921, but REPLACE the nation's Constitutional statecraft with a centralized "command system."

Twenty Two "Executive Orders" (EOs)

FEMA has 22 Executive Orders for the President to sign in case of an emergency. It is believed those Executive Orders contain the framework of North's concepts, delayed by criticism, but never truly abandoned.

Executive Order #12148 - created the Federal Emergency Management Agency that is to interface with the Department of Defense for civil defense planning and funding. An "emergency Czar" was appointed.

Executive Order #12656 - appointed the National Security Council as the principal body that should consider emergency powers. This allows the government to increase domestic surveillance of U.S. citizens and restrict freedom of movement within the United States, granting to the government the right to isolate large groups of civilians. The National Guard may be used to seal all borders and take control of US air space and all ports of entry.

The following orders are written, but not implemented. They could be implemented at any time by suspending the Constitution of the United States and using FEMA to do it:

Executive Order #10990 - take over all modes of transportation and to control all highways and seaports.

Executive Order #10995 - seize and control the communication media.

Executive Order #10997 - take over all electrical power, gas, petroleum, fuel, and minerals.

Executive Order #10998 - take over all food resources and farms.

Executive Order #11000 - mobilize civilians into work brigades under government supervision.

Executive Order #11001 - take over all health, education, and welfare functions.

Executive Order #11002 - designates the Postmaster General to operate a national registration of all persons.

Executive Order #11003 - take over all airports and aircraft, including commercial aircraft.

Executive Order #11004 - allows the housing and finance authorities to relocate communities, build new housing with public funds, designate areas to be abandoned, and establish new areas for populations.

Executive Order #11005 - allows the government to take over railroads, inland waterways, and public storage facilities.

Executive Order #11051 - specifies the responsibilities of the Office of Emergency Planning and gives authorization to put all executive orders into effect in times of increased international tensions and economic or financial crisis.

Executive Order #11310 - grants authority to the Department of Justice to enforce the plans set out in Executive Orders, to institute industrial support, to establish judicial and legislative liaison, to control all aliens, to operate penal and correctional institutions, and to advise and assist the President.

Executive Order #11049 - assigns emergency preparedness function to federal departments and agencies, consolidating 21 operative executive orders issued over a 15-year period.

Executive Order #11921 - allows the Federal Emergency Preparedness agency to develop plans to establish control over the mechanisms of production and distribution of energy sources, wages, salaries, credit and the flow of money in U.S. financial institutions, in any undefined national emergency. It also provides that when a state of emergency is declared by the President, Congress cannot review the action for 6 months.

All of the aforementioned orders were combined by President Richard Nixon into the notorious EO 11490 (pronounced "EO eleven-4-9-oh"), which allows ALL of these insidious orders to take place, if a national emergency is ever declared.

Here are some direct quotes from the 40-page Nixon EO 11490:

"Develop plans and procedures for the Department of Defense utilization of non-industrial facilities in the even of an emergency in order to reduce requirements for new construction and to provide facilities in a minimum period of time." In other words, the confiscation of private property.

"Develop plans and procedures for the provision of logistical support to members of foreign forces, their employees and dependents as may be present in the United States under terms of bilateral or multilateral agreements which authorize such support in the event of a national emergency ..."

In other words, prepare for the billeting of foreign troops in your home, contrary to the Third Amendment.

"Develop emergency plans for the control of alien enemies and _other aliens_ within the United States ... . The location, restraint or custody of aliens ..."

"The Secretary of Labor shall have primary responsibility for preparing national emergency plans and developing preparedness programs covering civilian manpower resources."

Preparations can be undertaken for forced labor.

"Provision for regulation of money and credit in accordance with the needs of the economy, including the acquisition, decentralization and distribution of emergency supplies of currency; the collection of cash items and non-cash items; and the conduct of fiscal agency and foreign operations."

"Provision for the continued or resumed operation of banking, savings and loan, and farm credit institutions, including measures for the recreation of evidence of assets or liabilities destroyed or inaccessible."

"Regulation of the withdrawal of currency and the transfer of credits, including deposit and share account balances."

There are those naive souls who believe that fears of the United States ever becoming a dictatorship are unwarranted. From the above EO signed by Nixon on October 28, 1969, the reader can judge for himself.

Then along came President Jimmy Carter with EO 12148, entitled the Federal Emergency Management Act. All prior EOs having anything to do with emergency planning were incorporated into it. This EO gives the president absolute power during "any emergency" so declared by him.

From Carter's machinations emerged a totally new bureaucracy, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which assumed control of a chain of older "emergency agencies," including the Federal Disaster Insurance Assistance Administration, the Federal Insurance Administration, the National Weather Service, the Federal Emergency Broadcast System and about a dozen others.

In an "emergency," FEMA was, through EO 12148, to virtually take over the key functions of the national government by means of "senior representatives" and "liaison agents" now positioned in every major government agency.

Three times since 1984, FEMA stood on the threshold of taking control of the nation. Once under President Reagan in 1984, and twice under President Bush in 1990 and 1992. But under those three scenarios, there was not a sufficient crisis to warrant risking martial law. Most experts on the subject of FEMA and Martial Law insisted that a crisis has to appear dangerous enough for the people of the United States before they would tolerate or accept complete government takeover. The typical crisis needed would be threat of imminent nuclear war, rioting in several U.S. cites simultaneously, a series of national disasters that affect widespread danger to the populous, massive terrorist attacks, a depression in which tens of millions are unemployed and without financial resources, or a major environmental disaster.

Three Times FEMA Stood Ready For Emergency Takeover

In April 1984, President Reagan signed Presidential Director Number 54 that allowed FEMA to engage in a secret national "readiness exercise" under the code name of REX 84. The exercise was to test FEMA's readiness to assume military authority in the event of a "State of Domestic National Emergency" concurrent with the launching of a direct United States military operation in Central America. The plan called for the deputation of U.S. military and National Guard units so that they could legally be used for domestic law enforcement. These units would be assigned to conduct sweeps and take into custody an estimated 400,000 undocumented Central American immigrants in the United States. The immigrants would be interned at 10 detention centers to be set up at military bases throughout the country.

REX 84 was so highly guarded that special metal security doors were placed on the fifth floor of the FEMA building in Washington, D.C. Even long-standing employees of the Civil Defense of the Federal Executive Department possessing the highest possible security clearances were not being allowed through the newly installed metal security doors. Only personnel wearing a special red Christian cross or crucifix lapel pin were allowed into the premises. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North was responsible for drawing up the emergency plan, which U.S. Attorney General William French Smith opposed vehemently. The plan called for the suspension of the Constitution, turning control of the government over to FEMA, appointment of military commanders to run state and local governments and the declaration of Martial Law. The Presidential Executive Orders to support such a plan were already in place. The plan also advocated the rounding up and transfer to "assembly centers or relocation camps" of a least 21 million American Negroes in the event of massive rioting or disorder, not unlike the rounding up of the Jews in Nazi Germany in the 1930s.

The second known time that FEMA stood by was in 1990 when Desert Storm was enacted. Prior to President Bush's invasion of Iraq, FEMA began to draft new legislation to increase its already formidable powers. One of the elements incorporated into the plan was to set up operations within any state or locality without the prior permission of local or state authorities. Such prior permission has always been required in the past. Much of the mechanism being set into place was in anticipation of the economic collapse of the Western World. The war with Iraq may have been conceived as a ploy to boost the bankrupt economy, but it only pushed the West into deeper recession.

The third scenario for FEMA came with the Los Angeles riots after the Rodney King brutality verdict. Had the rioting spread to other cities, FEMA would have been empowered to step in. As it was, major rioting only occurred in the Los Angeles area, thus preventing a pretext for a FEMA response.

The scenarios established to trigger FEMA into action are generally found in the society today, economic collapse, civil unrest, drug problems, terrorist attacks, and protests against American intervention in a foreign country. All these premises exist, it could only be a matter of time in which one of these triggers the entire emergency necessary to bring FEMA into action, and then it may be too late, because under the FEMA plan, there is no contingency by which Constitutional power is restored.

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